Before the close of the nineteenth century, courts awarded custody of a child/children to fathers after divorce. This was due to the Property Law and inheritance issues which were in effect and observed during those times. The way how courts perceived who was more capable of providing children’s needs, however, changed during the start of the twentieth century, resulting to the transfer of custodial right to mothers, naturally the better caretakers of young children. This position of the courts served as the basis for “The Tender Years Doctrine,” which was observed up to the 1970s. Today, however, the courts no longer see father or mother as having the sole right for custodianship. If the court finds both spouses fit to care for their child, then the court will never deny the child the love and care of both parents. This is because courts know and believe that the care and love that can be provided by both parents are essential in the growth and development of their child/children. Thus, many courts now decide on joint legal and physical custody, giving both parents equal time and rights over the care and concern of their child/children. Under the joint custody ruling, a child/children may also decide to reside with one parent or may move from one parent’s residence to another.

Joint custody is usually a court’s decision unless it can be proven that one parent is unfit or is not responsible enough to care for his or her child/children. Being an unfit parent can be due to a variety of different reasons, like: a medical condition that would render a parent incapable of providing the amount of care and attention the child/children need/s; abusive parental behavior (physical and/or verbal abuse); a parent being an alcohol and/or drug dependent; a parent exposing his or her child/children to pornographic elements and/or illegal activities; abandonment of the child/children; or, use of excessive, unnecessary forms of discipline.

If both parents are guilty of any of those listed above, then the court can choose to award child custody to grandparents or a court-appointed care taker. If only one parent is considered unfit, then the court may choose to decide on sole custody, awarding custodianship to the parent who has the capability to provide the child’s needs.

States usually consider different factors when resolving the issue of child custody. One underlying factor, however, which remains the same no matter in which state one resides is the “the child’s best interest.” States include the following as falling within the scope of “in the best interest of the child”:

  • The child’s gender and age;
  • The amount of involvement each parent has in activities participated in by the child;
  • The parents’ level of relationship with the child;
  • The health risks and safety of the environment where each parent lives; and,
  • The lifestyle, stability, and health of each parent as these can affect a child’s academic performance.

According to the law firm Marshall & Taylor PLLC, the importance a child custody agreement in the lives of the children and the parents makes this issue one of the most contentious issues during a divorce proceeding. Thus, it is important that parents know what type of custody they intend to have for them to successfully complete their divorce process. If sole custody is the most viable option, then the custodial parent should see to it that the non-custodial parent is given enough time to spend and enjoy with his or her child/children through visitation rights.


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A big part of a car accident claim is evidence. Aside from the medical records and police reports, a process of collecting evidence called discovery is utilized, where both parties involved use a variety of particular legal procedures in order to get useful information relevant to the case. Many opposing attorneys, as told by the Hankey Law Office, use the discovery method of “interrogatories” where they will write a letter to the other drivers, pedestrians, the driver’s employers, and many others, will have to answer under oat on a given period of time.

Interrogatories are a very common procedure in lawsuits. It is made to consciously acquire relevant information that would lead to a successful claim. You and your lawyers should draft the interrogatory letter immediately after you have filed your lawsuit and after collecting the defendant’s response. Your interrogatories should include important questions that you would like to ask from the defendant, although the law will give the defendant the right not to answer all some questions and their attorneys can object to some questions that they may consider irrelevant or advantageous and would only answer them if the court instructs them to.

Likewise, interrogatories will also be sent to you by the defendant as covered by the discovery process. You and your lawyer will be answering the question that you deem are significant and consistent to your claim. These questions are often used to imply that you were at-fault (or at least have a part in the cause of the accident) or that the injuries you claim are not as severe are you alleged them to be. Although many questions may appear unrelated or unreasonable, providing an answer or an objection within the time state-allowed time period is necessary because failing to do so may lead to court sanctions and could greatly impact the case.


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Workers regularly face a large selection of potential hazards to their own health and personal security as a result of the working conditions. However, among the most potentially serious issues related to workplace security is the possibility of employees growing a severe or long-term sickness as an outcome of these conditions that are occupational. Occupational diseases could require employees to spend a significant amount of time away from their jobs while they cure their conditions and are sometimes a critical difficulty for those impacted.

This might have a devastating impact on the finances of their household as well as the workers. For this reason, many workers are ensured employees compensation rewards to help them support themselves while they recover from an occupational disease. A personal injury lawyer would probably tell you that these benefits can reduce the majority of health-related expenses which might arise due to the medical condition, along with help to make up for wages that might be misplaced as a consequence of period spent away from work, producing workers payment crucial for employees who suffer sickness as a result of the work.

Common work-related Diseases

Work diseases may differ significantly in severity and kind, with some presenting just small difficulties and others signifying severe troubles for a workers well-being, in both the short and long term. A number of the occupational illnesses that are very most common include:

  • Carpal tunnel syndrome
  • Occupational pneumonia
  • Injury disorders that are repeated
  • Epidermis diseases

All these are only some of medical conditions and the various different work-related diseases a worker may get. The ramifications of those illnesses can differ extensively, but they might render the individual suitable for workers compensation benefits when they can be the result of employees operating conditions. However, obtaining these gains may require legal help.


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Depending on its severity, a burn injury can be a very serious condition. Those who suffer from a serious burn injury due to any catastrophic accident are likely to face grave consequences as they navigate through treatment and recovery. As such, it’s extremely important that these types of injuries are immediately treated by medical professionals. In case of an emergency, taking first aid measures to address the injury can make a huge difference for victims while waiting for first responders to arrive.

While first degree burns are superficial and affects only the top layer of the skin, it can still cause a lot of pain and swelling that could easily become uncomfortable. To remedy this type of burn, run the injured area under cool water or use a cold compress for 3 to 5 minutes. Make sure not to use or water that’s too cold, because the stark contrast in temperature might cause more damage to the skin. Next, apply an ample amount of aloe cream or burn ointment to the injured area. It can also help to cover it with a clean bandage or gauze pad.

The more serious second and third degree burns require careful attention during first aid scenarios. Second degree burns can be extremely painful; causing blisters to appear that might break open and make the injury to look raw and wet. Meanwhile, third degree burns are considered the most severe, causing the injured area to look white, brown, charred, leathery, dry, or waxy. Oftentimes, such injuries also cause nerve damage and will lead to the victim feeling numb or little to no pain. For both occasions, discomfort can be eased by removing the clothes and jewelry surrounding the area of the burn, running cool water to the site for about 3-5 minutes, and then keeping the injury sterilized with a clean bandage or piece of cloth.

Based on the 2013 fact sheet released by the American Burn Association, about 60 percent of medical hospitalization cases are related to some type of burn injury. Most of these injuries are caused by accidents that happen at home, in the workplace, and on the road during a vehicular crash. The personal injury lawyers at Sampson Law Firm also point that plenty of such accidents causing burn injuries happen due to reckless or negligent actions by another party. In this scenario, victims can seek out compensation that can help them pay for medical and treatment costs. Click here to learn more about what you can do if you’ve been burned in such a situation.


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Dogs are beloved pets in millions of households all over America. They are considered “man’s best friend,” well-loved for their playful and friendly dispositions. However, some dogs end up attacking when they feel provoked or threatened. Unfortunately, such instances usually end with serious injuries.

The non-profit organization Dogs Bite estimates that about 1,000 people become victims of dog bites and will require medical attention ever year. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the usual victims in these scenarios are children.

It’s not surprising that children are the typical victims of dog attacks. Children are curious about the world around them, and cute pets will often encourage this curiosity. Sometimes, a child’s attempt to play could be misconstrued by the dog as a threat. Keeping children supervised during such interactions is one of the most effective ways that dog bites can be prevented.

According to the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, parents, guardians, and dog-owners can take the following suggestions to keep children safe from dog bite injuries:

  • Never allow a child to approach a dog that is in the middle of eating, sleeping, or nursing her puppies. Similarly, prevent children from approaching a dog that’s already provoked or scared.
  • Prevent children from petting or approaching a dog that is off its leash, behind a fence, or inside a car. If they want to pet another person’s dog, tell them to ask the owner first.
  • Teach children about a dog’s body language. When a dog is scared, it will flatten its ears, hunch its back, and tuck its tail between the hind legs. When threatened, a dog will pull its ears back, wrinkle its muzzle, show its teeth, and growl.

Parents can keep their children safe from dog bites through proper supervision and education. However, such efforts won’t be enough to significantly reduce the number of reported dog bite injuries all over the country. As emphasized by the website of N. Craig Richardson, negligent pet owners can put the people around them at risk. Dog owners should be responsible for keeping their pets trained and well-behaved.


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Aviation Accidents

The Aviation Safety Network and other transportation authorities agree that air travel is fastest and safest way of long-distance travel today. Thousands of planes take off from, and land in, US airports every day, despite this huge number the number of accidents do not even equal half the number of fingers in one hand.

Even if the number of fatalities is to be considered, air travel registers only about 138 fatalities every year compared to the more than 35,000 and more than 3,100 fatal car and motorcycle accidents, respectively, that are recorded by the National Center for Statistics and Analysis (NCSA), a branch of the US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

The high safety rate in the air travel industry can only be the result of the lessons learned from past tragic accidents, the catalyst that spurred aviation authorities to continue in the improvement of airplane parts and devices that will keep passengers much safer from the moment they board until the time they get off the plane.

Some of the major improvements in the aviation industry include: upgrade in the air traffic control(ATC) system; strengthening of teamwork among the flight personnel and eradication of the concept that the “captain is god”; installation of downdraft detection and lavatory smoke sensors; use of transponders; installation of TCAS II collision-avoidance system; upgrading of the rudder Rx; installation of smoke detectors and automatic fire extinguishers in the cargo hold of all commercial airline; setting up or equipment and devices that will help eliminate the likelihood of electrical spark; and, the replacement of the Mylar insulation with fire-resistant materials.

Any improvement or upgrade, however, will prove useless unless flight procedures are strictly observed, maintenance of aircraft is regularly done, fuel is replenished, and the pilot is always in perfect health, is mindful of his responsibilities and is never under the influence of alcohol or drug.

While there have been times when mistakes that lead to accidents were traced to pilot error, there have also been instances when the fault actually sprung from top management’s negligent acts, according to the website of Pohl & Berk, LLP.

Whenever an accident occurs courts always recognize the suffering and injuries suffered by victims and so grant them the legal right to receive compensation from the liable party. Many civil cases, however, get settled even before these are filed in court as liable parties consider out-of-court settlements much less expensive that if the judge were to rule against them. And, often, in these settlements, victims are seen accepting (sometimes) financial offers from liable parties, some even thinking that the amount is quite big enough. An aviation accident lawyer, however, who knows how much compensation victims are really allowed to receive, also knows that settlement payments are usually far lower than what victims can legally claim from the liable party. Thus, being represented by a highly-qualified lawyer will always be in the best interest of the victim.


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One of the more complicated elements in a divorce is child custody. As pointed out on the website of the Marshall Taylor Law Firm, both parents would generally want to sustain a meaningful relationship with their children, an endeavor to be given custody of them after a divorce. Obviously, it would not be physically possible to have two parents have their children all the time so a compromise is often reached where one parent has physical custody (to whom depends on the circumstances) and the other parent has prescribed visitation rights.

The judge is the final authority on who gets what in child custody cases, and in general this is decided on what the statutes say and past experience has determined to be most beneficial for the children. In North Carolina, for instance, the statute (N.C.G.S.A. § 50-13.2(a)) emphasizes the “will best promote the interest and welfare of the child.” The statute does not specify all the factors that may impugn on the ruling, but it does provide some guidance when it comes to issues involving domestic violence, the ability of the parent to provide a child with a stable home environment, and the child’s extant living arrangements. The law does not favor one gender over another for child custody.

Because of the way the statute is worded, it provides a lot of leeway for the judge to decide just what that would entail. This can both be a good thing and a bad thing when one considers that judges are humans and apt to be influenced by their own personal life experiences and preferences. For example, there is an interesting Harvard University study that suggests judges who have daughters are more likely to award physical custody of children to the female parent.

When considering divorce, you need to make sure that your child’s best interests are safeguarded despite any biases that the judge may entertain. An experienced and persuasive divorce lawyer would be an invaluable ally in this endeavor.


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